A Study to Develop a Compelling Case to Raise Consciousness of Animal Welfare among Stakeholders in Africa
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In its simple definition, animal welfare is the physical, physiological and psychological wellbeing of animals. This definition takes into account the fact that the cells of the animals need to be intact [physical wellbeing] for them to perform the physiological processes that enable animals to not only stay alive, but also to perform the various production and reproduction functions which human beings keep them for. To provide these physiological functions, animals require the necessary resources necessary for the physiological processes; i.e., their physiological well being must be provided for. The bodily functions of an animal occur under the coordination of the nervous system; either directly or mediated by the hormonal system. The brain, as the central control unit of the body, assesses the environment, to detect opportunities to enhance its well being, or threats to its wellbeing.
When the brain detects threats to the animal’s wellbeing it enters the mode that triggers survival maneuvers; i.e. its status of normal psychological wellbeing is disturbed. Thus, since it no longer functions normally, it is unable to coordinate the functioning of the body cells optimally. The body cells are thus unable to maximize on the utilization of the available resources, provided by the animal owner, for the efficient physiological functions to support the maintenance of the animal in health or to produce the products the animal owner expects from it. In summary, the animal is in a poor state of welfare, and this translates into the animal owner being unable to derive the benefits he expected from them. This therefore implies that animal welfare must include the need for the animal to be in a good state of psychological wellbeing – which technically means that the animal needs to be free of physical and emotional discomfort. Examples of physical discomfort include pain, hunger, and perceptions from the ambience such as heat, cold, light or restraint; while exampels of emotional discomfort imclude fear [infuriartion, intimaidation, etc.] and anxiety [loneliness, yearning, restraint, etc.]. In short, animals suffer from psychological pain because they are sentient – where sentience refers to the ability to suffer physical and emotional discomfort. Efforts to bring about behavioral changes that address animal welfare must be based on raising people’s consciousness about the sentient nature of animals, and how this influences the benefits that people anticipate to accrue from the animals.
From the above, it is therefore evident that animals contribute to human wellbeing in all their various uses, and therefore the disregard for animal welfare translates into negative impacts on human welfare as well. Animal welfare (AW) is a complex issue that impacts on and is affected by climate change, food and nutrition security, animal resources development, poverty, cultural and religious issues. However animal welfare has not been accorded the requisite attention in policy and financial discussions in Africa at Continental, regional and National levels in relation to productivity of agricultural systems and other aspects of animal and human welfare which are closely interrelated. It is for this reason that the African Union Interafrican Bureau for Animal Resources [AUIBAR] working with Key technical partners and non-state actors have developed the Animal Welfare Strategy for Africa (AWSA) that aims to attain behaviour change, educate, inform, promote awareness, advocacy and good practices aligned to OIE standards towards animals ; strengthen effective action on animal welfare (technologies, human resources, research, animal care, contribution to standard settings) and to mainstream animal welfare in policies, strategies, legislation, investments, programmes and projects. The main tool for the implementation of the AWSA is the Africa Platform for Animal Welfare (APAW) whose main role is coordination, information sharing, a champion of animal welfare in the continent and support implementation of animal welfare programmes and projects and creation of partnerships at all levels.
To promote collective action on animal welfare it is an imperative for the APAW to create awareness for action among its membership comprising of public and private actors, and to reach out to parliamentarians at National, Regional and Continental levels. The narratives used must be based on compelling cases that show evidence [as envisaged in AU’s directive about “Africa-centric narratives”] of the benefits that accrue from good animal welfare practices.
To generate a compelling case for the need for improvement of animal welfare in Africa, it is necessary to understand the global policy frameworks for improvement of animal welfare as they impact on trade, socioeconomic improvement, food security, livelihoods and public health at the, global continental , and regional levels to include specifities within Regional Economic Communities (RECs). Further, this need for change speaks to the increasing importance of animal welfare as exemplified by the OIE AW standards and regulations and support for the UDAW.
At the regional level, ad hoc attempts have been made for improvement of AW through development of an IGAD Regional Animal Welfare Strategy and proposed SADC and ECOWAS Regional Animal Welfare Strategies. Countries also have disparate initiatives that have seen some progressive recent animal welfare laws enacted; such as Kenya , Tanzania (2008), Mali (2012), Mauritius (2013) and Sudan (2014). Implementation gaps, however, may present a challenge.
At the Continental level, the Second Ordinary Session of the Specialized Technical Committee (STC) on Agriculture, Rural Development, Water and Environment (Ministers’ Session) 05 - 06 October 2017 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia recognized and endorsed the AWSA, the APAW and the 4-year action plan and requested AU-IBAR and partners to mobilise the resources required to implement the Strategy. Therefore, AU-IBAR recognises the importance of AW in Africa and the need to harmonise, coordinate and enhance the capacity of member states through prioritizing AW in the current Strategic plan and subsequent implementation of the AWSA. AU Implementation of AWSA will be through the program “Improving the Governance of Animal Welfare in Africa (GoVAWA)”. To gain support for GoVAWA, there is a need for increased AW awareness of the APAW GA through increased knowledge of the AW environment in Africa and appreciation of the need for positive change for AW to enhance trade, socioeconomic, food security, livelihoods and public health gains. This will be achieved by understanding the AW policy environment at the continental and regional level in Africa including the gaps in the existing policy, regulatory and administrative frameworks; so as to prioritize regional interventions and to identify drivers of change to support engagement and implementation at regional and national levels. AU-IBAR is aware of some previous work done to provide on the policy landscape and status of animal welfare in Africa. This work will benefit from and build upon these studies to a renewed compelling case on the current animal welfare drivers for change in Africa. The present work will focus on the AU, the OIE and AU-recognized RECs specifically ECOWAS, ECCAS, SADC, COMESA and IGAD as the benchmarking RECs.
Justification and Scope
The goal of the AWSA is ‘to transform the animal resources industry through adoption of good animal welfare practices for human wellbeing, sustainable livelihoods, poverty reduction and economic growth”. The vision, mission and goal of AWSA are reflected in its strategic objectives which include practices aligned to OIE standards towards animals; strengthening effective action on animal welfare and to mainstream animal welfare in policies, strategies, legislation, investments, programs and projects. This consultancy should seek to demonstrate to the policy makers and parliamentarians the link between animal welfare, animal productivity, public health, livelihoods, environmental health, food security and sustainable development in Africa.
The scope of the assignment is to obtain evidence from Africa and elsewhere which can be used as compelling cases that animal welfare indeed enhances animal productivity, public health, livelihoods, environmental health, food security and sustainable development. This evidence ought to convince the Parliamentarians and other Decision Makers at the Member State Level that there is need to invest in not only the improvement of policies and legislations that enhance animal welfare, but also the provision of the resources for enforcement of those legislation as well as the implementation of the global, continental, regional and Member State policies and treaties for good animal welfare practices. The dialogues to deliver the compelling ase are expected to happen upon appropriate platforms ate the REC level, so that the decision made can be cascaded to the Africuan Union to become resolutions by the African Union, so that the AU can provide any support possible to the Member States to implement the AWSA.
The Overall Objective of the study is to develop a compelling case to raise the awareness of the benefits of AW, the challenges existing in Africa and the opportunities for interventions against those challenges, so as to trigger actions for improvement of AW in Africa.
The compelling case shall be based on the three objectives of the Animal Welfare strategy for Africa :
- Attain behaviour change, educate, inform, promote awareness, advocacy and good practices aligned to OIE standards towards animals (SO1);
- Strengthen effective action on animal welfare (technologies, human resources, research, animal care, contribution to standard settings) (SO2);
- Mainstream animal welfare in policies, strategies, legislation, investments, programmes and projects (SO3).
Specific Objectives for the Consultancy :
- To demonstrate how animal welfare influences the productivity, health and hence profitability of animals
- To demonstrate the link between animal welfare and human welfare
- To demonstrate the animal welfare challenges in Africa
- To make recmmednations to the PAP on the interventions they can make provisions for [e.g. in transport / trade; animal production ; animal health, zoonotic diseases, working animals wild animals and animals in disaters]
- To develop a white paper/ position paper on the evidence gathered;
- To share the evidence/information with the General Assembly
For the purpose of this study, a compelling case is a case that will demonstrate with evidence the link between the promotion of animal welfare [based on physical, physiological, and psychological wellbeing of animals] and cognizant of the various customer/stakeholder value propositions (suffering, cruelty, moral , ethical and economic considerations) on the issues of production sytems, trade [including transportation and slaughter]; zoonotic diseases, working amimals, animals in the wild and in trade, and animals in disasters.
The study shall involve mainly gathering and packaging of secondary data/information that will be gathered from Veterinary Services and Organisations working on animal welfare in RECs. The Consultant will design a questionnaire for primary data collection at the country level and one to be administered to the Member States and strategic person at the REC to gather information on the issues they would like reflected in the case – where the Veterinary Services and animal welfare organizations provide the evidence, while the respondents provide the areas of information gaps they would like to be informed on.
- Hold an inception meeting and discussions with CCAPAW Ad Hoc group
- Desk study and literature review based on criteria for a compelling case
Finalization of the design data/information collection tools i.e. questionnaires (interview guides) and checklists in consultation with CCAPAW.
- Draw a list of secondary data sources for discussion with the task force
- With APAW secretariat, draw up a list of appropriate target respondents at national, regional, and international levels detailing specific individuals representing various target institutions /actors /organizations and secretariat initiate and facilitates contact.
- Engagement with stakeholders in RECs [ECOWAS, SADC, ECCAS, COMES, IGAD] and carry out consultation under the auspices of AU-IBAR and field interviews in targeted countries
Prepare a position/ white paper.
- Prepare a draft policy brief highlighting the compelling drivers for AW improvement for Africa.
- Prepare and advocacy document for awareness creation on the benefit of AW practices on AR sector and trade
- Discuss the draft report with CCAPAW and make two presentations for sensitization and advocacy at AU organized meetings.
Present the findings of the study [at a physical or virtual conference] to the RECs for validation and resolution making for forward cascading to the Continental Level
The following are the expected outputs/deliverables:
- Inception Report
- Specific report for each region (Central, Eastern, Northern, Southern and Western rgion of Africa)
- Submission of a consolidated final report
- Powerpoint presentations
- Advocacy document for awareness creation on AW for PAP members
- Policy brief on AW practices in Africa
It is estimated that the work will involve a a consortium ( Group of Consultants) to undertake the task. This includes the development of the work-plan and questionnaires; engagemet with responsdents; desk reviews for information collection, report preparation and presentation of the outputs.
The consulrtium (Group of consultants) will all the required documents listed in Outputs/Deliverables
Financial and Technical Proposal
The appointed Consortium of consultants will prepare and submit financial proposal togheter with the technical proposal.
Academic Qualifications & Work Experience
Academic Qualifications :
- At least a Masters in Veterinary Medicine or Animal Science from a recognized University, with a minimum of 7 years of work experience.
- Or a Bachelor’s Degree in Veterinary Medicine or Animal Science from a recognized University, University with a minimum of 10 years of work experience.
Required Skills and Competencies
- Demonstrated knowledge of data collection, data analysis and dissemination to diverse types of audiences
- Demonstration of a clear conceptualization of animal welfare and sentience, as well as its link to the sustainable development of the Animal resources in Africa
- Demonstration of a clear knowledge about animal welfare promotion initiatives in Africa and elsewhere
- Communication: effective written, oral and presentation skills, particularly ability to present information in a concise and accurate manner
Language and other Skills
- Proficiency in writing reports in English for those bidding on the Anglophone basis, and French for those bidding on the Francophone basis
- Capacity to communicate fluently with different stakeholders (civil society, government authorities, and the Parliamentarians).
Duration of the Contract and Remuneration
This assignment should be fully implemented within a total period of 20 working days. The assignment will be undertaken at your respective countries of origin, but with travel to the respective AU-IBAR’s designated venue for reporting and presentation of the outputs to the target audiences.
Submission of Technical and Financial Proposals
The proposal in English or in French should be divided into a technical and a financial part submitted by mail.
A technical proposal indicating the approach to the assignment, including the general methodology, objectives, activities to be carried out, expected outputs, outline of the content and a clear timeframe to carry out the assignment.
A financial proposal for the consultancy should be all inclusive (consultancy fees, costs related to field visits).
The technical proposal will account for 70 % of the score and the financial offer for 30 % of the score. The consultant with the highest aggregate score will be selected.
The criteria and respective scores for evaluating the technical offer will be:
- Proposed approach, methodology and content: 20 points
- Comments on the terms of reference: 5 points
- References in animal health or livestock assessments, vet services strategic plans (with knowledge in PVS tool), livestock policies: 25 points
- CV of the consultant(s): 20 points
To be considered for financial evaluation, the consultant must score a minimum of 70% for the technical proposal (any score below will be disregarded).
The lowest financial offer will be scored 30 points and the others will be scored as follows:
Score of financial offer = (Amount of lowest offer /Amount of this offer) x 30
The firm or group of consultant with the highest aggregate score will be selected.
How to apply:
For each interest lot (consultancy), the technical and financial proposals should be submitted in separately through Email Procurement@au-ibar.org; firstname.lastname@example.org each clearly marked “Technical proposal” or “Financial proposal”. With “Procurement title of the Consultancy”.
The deadline for submission of proposals is 15 November 2020
Clarifications should be addressed to: e-mail: Procurement@au-ibar.org; email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org
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